The Knowledge by Wahoo

Drinking Lessons: Hydration Basics to Improve Performance

Episode Summary

From blood viscosity to sweat to what's in your bottle, the more you know about how to hydrate, the better you'll perform.

Episode Notes

What can you learn from beer, chicken wings, and a team of ice hockey players? Find out in this episode full of entertaining stories where Sports Scientists Neal Henderson and Mac Cassin examine the basics of hydration - what it is, why it matters, the mistakes to avoid, and how to drink smarter to get the most out of it yourself.

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Episode Transcription

Neal Henderson  0:00  

Hello, and welcome to another episode of The Knowledge podcast by Wahoo, I am Neal Henderson.


Mac Cassin  0:05  

And I'm Mac Cassin. Today we're talking about drinking. Wait, what? Series? Yeah, I'd be more specific like sports-related drinking, you know, proper exercise hydration.


Neal Henderson  0:16  

Okay, I get it. I was wondering because yeah, I mean, never mind, I'll put the red cup away here. I don't need that. I'll just get my water.


Mac Cassin  0:24  

It's five o'clock somewhere. Now.


Neal Henderson  0:26  

It is true. All right. Well, with this drinking thing, it's really about hydration. Right? Not just like drinking.


Mac Cassin  0:34  

Yep. It's about maintaining a fluid balance in your body as humans are


Neal Henderson  0:39  

mostly water. Like how much mostly? Like 99%?


Mac Cassin  0:42  

Not that much, mostly, like 70%? Depends on how dehydrated you are.


Neal Henderson  0:46  

Yeah, some really interesting stuff out there right now, actually, if you follow David Epstein, writer of the sports gene, and many other very good books range, he talks about estimations of numbers and how far people are off on a lot of things that they think are kind of common. So that's why that's what I'm going to probe a little deeper on the, you know, yes, we are mostly water, but how much mostly how much of that is mostly water. So you can follow that up on your own.


Mac Cassin  1:15  

And that water in our body really isn't just water, right? It's not nice, clean, distilled. Water, it's got some stuff in it.


Neal Henderson  1:24  

Definitely, that's part of you know, out. Within all of ourselves, we definitely have some aspects of water and liquid that is then associated with other things. Remember, some chemistry some of those terms that we use with


Mac Cassin  1:40  

fluids, like osmolarity, osmolarity,


Neal Henderson  1:43  

solvent, solute, all those kinds of things. It's kind of interesting. There's applications here. But let's stick to the high level and not that get down into that nitty gritty stuff, that might not be as applicable. So the fluid aspect that we kind of think about during sustained exercise is what's happening with our sweat rate, which is going to have some impacts on our plasma volume in the blood,


Mac Cassin  2:18  

right. And plasma volume is important because it you know, helps your heart pump all the red blood cells around. So you'll note if you do a long ride, and you notice your heart rate steadily getting higher over the duration for the same effort. Most likely, it's because your plasma volume has dropped enough that your heart has to beat faster to get the same amount of red blood cells pumped to your muscles.


Neal Henderson  2:40  

Yep, that's because your blood is getting more viscous, you're losing a little bit of the fluid out of there. So all your red blood cells are getting packed together a little closer. And so they're just a little more sludgy than they were if you had adequate plasma volume, adequate hydration. So we're going to talk about things that we think about with regard to how to minimize that kind of a problem of not taking enough fluid. And we are not going to talk exclusively about water, there is going to be definite discussion of more than water because plain water can actually be dangerous.


Mac Cassin  3:18  

Yes. hyponatremia, which is yeah, if you have too much water, there have been several cases of people dying. One there's it's happened in marathons before. I remember. I was I was in some chemistry class, when there's a competition to what was it called is hold your we for a Wii where people were just not? Yeah, it didn't it didn't go well. Someone died during that promotion. So that's not good.


Neal Henderson  3:43  

Yeah. So too much water, just like anything almost in life can be a problem. So there's different things that compose our sweat, that include sodium, we have some potassium in their Mac,


Mac Cassin  4:00  

some calcium said magnesium, much lower sodium is by far the largest component from a mineral standpoint,


Neal Henderson  4:08  

and it is sodium that is kind of like the unlocker of allowing fluid to move from one place to another basically from outside of the cell into the cell. In most cases, it is going to be a sodium and sodium potassium pump that's going to allow for that that diffusion to occur.


Mac Cassin  4:29  

Yeah, so that comes back to that term osmolarity. So it's a it's a gradient. If you have more. If you have two bits of fluid separated by a cell cell wall, and one side has a lot more sodium compared to one side, the side without the sodium is going to push water into the higher sodium concentration side to try and get them to be balanced. Your body is all about homeostasis and trying to get that and so that pull based on the concentration have, you know what's dissolved in the water is what is a big part of that. And that's


Neal Henderson  5:05  

osmotic pressure and the gradient, so you don't want to have a massive gradient being introduced. So if you were to drink something that was very low in sodium, and your body has a certain amount of sodium in all the fluids, that's going to cause some problems. opposite of that, if you did a huge, massive sodium bolus, and amount of small fluid, you're going to have a shift going the other direction.


Mac Cassin  5:33  

That's why you shouldn't drink seawater because it will kill you,


Neal Henderson  5:37  

it will kill you too much of a thing like that is bad for a fellow.


Mac Cassin  5:41  

So I think what we've established is not enough, water is bad, too much water is bad. Not enough. Sodium is bad. Too much sodium is bad.


Neal Henderson  5:48  

Yep. Man, there's a lot of pieces here. So first, let's just even reverse a touch here Mac, like why do we sweat in the first place?


Mac Cassin  5:58  

We sweat because our body is trying to keep itself cool. When we exercise or move, we produce, you know, physical energy, like when you pedal a bike, you produce watts, it's pretty easy for a cyclist


Neal Henderson  6:10  

external output measured, but


Mac Cassin  6:13  

you're also producing a lot more, or you're using a lot more energy, and that's being transformed into heat. So if every 100 Watts you put out to the bike, your body's basically producing 300 watts of heat, which, like


Neal Henderson  6:26  

a small toaster, yeah, two piece toaster, not a four piece toaster.


Mac Cassin  6:30  

And so with with that heat your body naturals, your body's natural response is to start sweating. And that a lot of times, as we said at the beginning that comes from the plasma from your blood. And so sweat goes on to your skin, it evaporates, which when you take a liquid and turned it into a gas that requires energy, so it takes that heat energy away and cools you down. It's also why it's terrible to work out in hot, humid places, because there's already so much water in the air, that it's not evaporating as much so Yeah,


Neal Henderson  7:05  

exactly. Especially in cycling, we have another added function of when we are moving outside. So on a stationary, we don't get this much unless we have a nice fan. Nice, headwind blowing over us. This is going to add to that evaporative heat loss, we'll also have some convective loss of just having that air moving as well, it's going to help accelerate the evaporation of that sweat that's on your body surface, which will help cool you down as well as then move that hot air away from you. So if you were looking to be very uncomfortable riding outside and a hot temperature, ideally, your conditions would be very hot, humid, and with a tail wind going the same speed that you're going, you would just be creating this bubble of heat, which is pretty uncomfortable, you're going to be sweating a lot, but it's not going to be very effective and cooling you down. And so really, in cases like that, you often have to just monitor your your intensity and back off, because you're just not gonna be able to sustain that you can or you can get overheated, you can get into different levels of heat stress. And so Option A is to slow down. Option B is to basically if you're not taking in enough fluids get dehydrated, and also you're going to slow down, if not stop. So we don't want you to have to stop while you're writing. So we want you to manage your effort, as well as maintain your hydration. So let's get back to then the part of putting in a little bit of you know, at least some portion of what we're losing.


Mac Cassin  8:46  

Right. And so when it comes to the types of fluid you should drink. I think one story I always like is, you know the origin of Gatorade, where it was from someone working with the football team of the Florida Gators, and they noticed University of Florida and they noticed that shockingly, the players were all doing pretty poorly when it was really hot and humid. So they went about saying okay, we're what sweat made out of because that's what we're losing. We should probably put that back in so hard work


Unknown Speaker  9:16  

and dedication. That's what sweats made out of? Yeah, yeah.


Mac Cassin  9:18  

In addition to some chemicals, yeah, some chemistry too. But so the first version of Gatorade was literally just sweat water, artificial sweat water, and it surprisingly wasn't that popular with the players that day.


Neal Henderson  9:31  

So good. I mean, yeah, I hope they didn't just collect it and then maybe filter on return it


Mac Cassin  9:37  

I think they had the resources to just buy some some sodium and just added some salt to it and said, Here you go. But then they added some sugar, it became more effective that becomes a good workout drink. Unfortunately, Gatorade has now shifted to be more just trigger water. A lot of the pro teams that are actually sponsored by them they get little packets called Gator lights, which are electrolyte tabs that do They're suggested to add to the normal Gatorade,


Neal Henderson  10:02  

yep, or the Gatorade endurance formula, there's a few things that they've done to know like, Okay, actually, there might be a little better way than, than the initial offering that we see like in a, in a gas station, you know, little food shop, I mean, sometimes better than nothing, but there are better options for that. So you're gonna have in a replacement drink some combination, then of sodium with the fluid and some sugar. So the sugar or the carbohydrate, generally is gonna be there for the energy side of things. And the salt is there kind of open up that pathway to get that fluid into the


Mac Cassin  10:36  

body. And in addition, just as a side note, in addition to sodium being really helpful and necessary to move water from your intestines in your body, it also is a co transporter with glucose. So if you have just raw sugar with no, it's not really possible to have no sodium. But yeah, you need a bit extra sodium when you have a bit more glucose going in. So double, double bonus, that double plus,


Neal Henderson  11:01  

yeah, so one of the things that's important for an athlete to do is to kind of have an idea of how much fluid they lose how much what their sweat loss rate is one way of putting it. And this does require doing a little bit of measurement, you can do pretty much all of this at home. If you have a scale, a good accurate scale definitely is helpful. And I know not everyone loves it. But the system international SI units, doing everything in leaders and kilograms is going to make your life easier for this next part. I'm not going to talk about ounces and pounds, because the math is just a lot harder. It's so much simpler when we go to the international units of liters of fluid, and kilograms of mass. So and for


Mac Cassin  11:53  

those who don't know, one liter is 33.6 ounces. So if you are stuck in


Neal Henderson  11:57  

Yeah, yeah. Yeah, if you've been living under a rock or in America, you'll think of it in those units. But a leader is 33.6 ounces, one liter of fluid, normal flow of water


Mac Cassin  12:12  

of water, a specific temperature


Neal Henderson  12:15  

weighs one kilogram, which again, if you're into those weird units, Mac, what's a kilo?


Mac Cassin  12:21  

I 2.2 pounds? Yeah. Again,


Neal Henderson  12:24  

I'm not going to say you can say it, I'm going to make you say the dirty words. So leaders kilograms. So if you weigh yourself before you go for a ride, you should actually do this in the fully Monty state with absolutely nothing on. So do this in your bathroom on that scale, nothing on and then put your cycling kid on and go for a ride. Do write down how much fluid you drink, how many liters, or bottles and then figure out how many milliliters are in each of your bottle or what were those other measurements, Mac you could use. You could use ounces, you could, it's going to be harder math, I'll just say it again. But how many liters of fluid you take in during the ride. Knowing that for every leader, that's one kilogram of mass of fluid that you've ingested, and then weigh yourself at the very end, go back into that full monty state back into your bathroom onto the same scale, make sure it's zeroed out. If you're extra sweaty, maybe even towel off how often appropriately because you've lost that sweat, it may be hanging on you temporarily, but go ahead and get it off. Step on that scale, measure your post ride weight, and you're going to add the kilograms of fluid ingested to the kilograms of body weight before you ride, subtract, then your body weight after the ride and then divide that by the number of hours your ride was. So we can do some simple math on this lot of


Mac Cassin  14:07  

steps. I'll just throw out there for if you are going to go on a do this on a test drive that's under two hours, hour and a half it and you're not going to refill your bottles at some point during the ride. It's okay to fill them up fully. When you get on the scale, have them in your hands. And then when you get home, continue to have those in your hands. It takes out a few steps of math but that only works if you're not stopping somewhere to top off then you do need to keep track of you drink three and a half bottles over four hours then. Yeah,


Neal Henderson  14:40  

exactly. And also if you'd like food in your pocket or you had a co2 canister and a tube and then you got a flat and you changed it and then you didn't replace it and yeah, you know, there's a lot of potential error there Mac which is why I like to go for the full monty.


Mac Cassin  14:55  

Well I'm sitting fully new just two water bottles. I don't see what's so weird with that.


Neal Henderson  14:59  

Well We see things differently, I guess. But that's okay. You're in your own bathroom, you can do as you wish.


Mac Cassin  15:04  

So back to the math, simple math.


Neal Henderson  15:07  

Simple math. So if an individual weighed 75 kilograms before their bike ride, they, at the end of the ride weighed 74 kilograms, and they ingested 1.5 kilograms of fluid, or one and a half liters, which would be about 50 ounces, or something like that. Ash suddenly said that the total loss Mac would be 2.5 kilogram point five kilograms. And let's just say this ride was two hours in length.


Mac Cassin  15:41  

So then you're gonna take that 2.5 divided by two?


Neal Henderson  15:43  

Yep, 1.25 liters per hour was the sweat rate,


Mac Cassin  15:49  

which might sound crazy, but that's pretty standard.


Neal Henderson  15:53  

Yep, I'm definitely higher than that. About 1.7 liters. In pretty normal conditions like 75 degrees, I'm losing about 1.7 liters when it's hot. I'm over two liters an hour.


Mac Cassin  16:06  

I think I'm around 1.5 down to around 15 degrees Fahrenheit. Yep. I'm gonna I'm gonna sweater What can I say? Exactly. And


Neal Henderson  16:15  

so you need to have an idea of what you're losing to have an idea of then what you need to replace. Now,


Mac Cassin  16:21  

just as an anecdotal story when you're 23 nationals were in Augusta, Georgia. In a hot, humid August, our robbery, or road race was at 1pm. There was a heat warning they were instructing people to not go outside. And but no, it's totally cool for us to race. 104 Miles go for it. Fortunately, I got into Breakway so I could get bottles every feed, but during that four hour and change race, I drink 17 bottles 17 full size bottles. And then once I got to the finish line I down like two more immediately. And I was also getting ice socks every lap it was. Yeah. Yeah, that was an experience. Yep,


Neal Henderson  17:00  

I can tell you the last Ironman Triathlon Ironman distance race I did in Boulder. air temperature is 96 degrees, not a cloud in the sky. So a heck of a lot of sun cooking us out there. I also was in a fortunate position, I was leading the race on the bike for a long while. So I had the support vehicle was able to get some extra bottles. From there, I was drinking three liters or three bottles every hour. And I was still absolutely hosed by the end of the bike. By the time I finished the run, which the last 10k I walked because my body had completely shut down. So I set a personal record of about 97 minutes for the last 10k walking around the boulder reservoir in the heat baking still dying. My weight changed that day, I went from 76 kilos before the race start to just shy of 70 kilos at the finish line. I was not feeling very good. They gave me actually a couple liters of IV fluid before they would even let me leave the medical 10 Because I was absolutely not doing well. That's the last Iron Man I did.


Mac Cassin  18:06  

I think I can't imagine why that was your last one. It sounds Yeah.


Neal Henderson  18:10  

And here's the crazy thing, I was drinking one and a half liters an hour, I needed at least two liters an hour, I was running a deficit of half a liter an hour. And when you do that for many hours in a row, real trouble ensues. And so we don't want you to suffer like we've suffered. So hopefully some of this information is going to help you.


Mac Cassin  18:32  

So then the next component of that, as we've already said, you can't just have water, you want something with primarily sodium is the main thing we're sweating out. So you want some sodium. How should I How do you know how much to have?


Neal Henderson  18:47  

Yeah, there there are some ways that this can be tested in our lab here we are fortunate enough to actually be able to measure the amount the concentration of sodium in the sweat. Most people don't have access to a lab like we have. So we have to use some starting points as kind of an estimate the range generally for humans is around 500 milligrams of sodium per liter of sweat on the lower side. Some people Yes, maybe even lower than that. But on the on average lower side around 500 milligrams to in excess of 2000 milligrams per liter, we usually say a good starting point for your fluid replacement is is around 800 milligrams per liter. Some of you can do a little bit less, some of you are gonna definitely need to do a little bit more. The easiest way to tell if you need more is after rides in those hot conditions that your your kit is white or you have those white lines that kind of look like a topographic map, especially if you do a longer ride and you just see these different layers of basically that white is is dried sodium and sweat some of the you know some of the other electrolytes that are in there too. But predominantly, it's the sodium


Mac Cassin  19:56  

Yep, those nice sweat sweat stains you get sweat salt residue. It is It's worth noting for that. I know that if you a lot of people will take salt tablets pretty regularly because they have issues with cramping, but we'll we'll touch on that a bit later. But so it is possible if you take a lot of supplemental sodium when you're exercising, it's possible that your body's natural sweat rate isn't that high and sodium, but because you're forcing so much into yourself, then it then so Jackson, yeah, if you're if you really want to test out the salty Jersey thing, try it on a ride we're in and don't take


Neal Henderson  20:29  

supplements ton of extra. And just a note, if you are taking in some of those salts supplements have an understanding of how much is in that and make sure that you're taking in then enough fluid with that so that you don't throw that salt bomb, which will also cause problems. The opposite to have an understanding if you realize, or if you if you don't know that you're maybe needing more sodium as if you're drinking as you're writing. And you're kind of getting this almost like a backup and everything is sloshing, that fluid is just staying put and not moving through your system, that's a very clear indication that you don't have enough sodium for the amount of fluid that you're taking, it's not able to be processed and move out of your gut. And so you definitely should stop drinking more at that point. And you should get in some salty foods or salt. So something like you know, pretzels or potato chips at a gas station stop or a good emergency thing, one of my you know, I'll do beef jerky, as another quick way of getting a pretty good amount of sodium in there quickly.


Mac Cassin  21:36  

No, and this is really just mostly for people in the States, we have a propensity to have


Neal Henderson  21:41  

those kinds of salt salty stuff available. But Little Canada V eight juice also works pretty heavy sodium concentration there in a smaller volume of fluid. But you're going to have to do a little bit of experimentation, we would encourage you to write down what you are taking in especially as you're getting ready and getting out into the warmer conditions right now probably this time of year for those of us in the in the northern hemisphere, we're definitely getting hotter days. And you want to make sure that you're trying to match your fluid loss rate fairly closely, maybe not 100%, let's just say somewhere close, at least 80% of what you're losing, you're trying to get back in and having an appropriate balance of that sodium relative to the fluid need that you have. So it's gonna require a little math. I don't apologize for that. It's just how it is.


Mac Cassin  22:30  

It's it's pretty, it's just some arithmetic, it's written pretty simple. You can just go into an Excel spreadsheet if you really need to. Yeah.


Neal Henderson  22:37  

So you mentioned something about cramps. And there's what you know, there's some information out there we would say that maybe isn't necessarily


Mac Cassin  22:45  

Yeah, it's I think it's most people's understanding of cramps is it's down to just the lack of electrolytes that that is the cause of cramps, if you cramp a lot that you need to take more electrolytes. And it's kind of a whole topic we can go into Dr. Ginger Gottschall are below was a sports scientist actually worked in in a lab looking at the causes of cramps. And basically, there's a lot of different ones where there are some people who can have an extreme electrolyte deficit and not have cramps, there's some people who can have no electrolyte deficit and have cramps. So if you cramp and you find that having some pickle juice or whatever those things, if you find it works, then okay, cool. You're probably one of the people who it's triggered by a lack of electrolytes. If you get cramps, and you try that stuff, and it doesn't work, then you have a different root cause. And, and again, it's a bit it's a bit much to get into on this hydration episodes. Yes, not explicitly.


Neal Henderson  23:42  

Yeah, I'd say from a, from a practical point of view, I'd say a lot of cases we see with cramps, or just simply it's a mechanical overload, people have done more work than they are used to doing. And the muscles are having problems, because they've been asked to do more than they're yet capable of doing. They haven't been prepared for that. So strength training can actually help a little bit in that point of view, I would say, but, you know, your results may vary. There's there's a lot of different things there. But keep that in mind.


Mac Cassin  24:10  

And that's a perfect segue. He said strength training, it's also important to when you're doing off the bike work to stay hydrated, it can be very easy to if you're doing a string session, 3045 minutes, you're gonna, you're gonna sweat. It might not be as much or as noticeable as when you're out riding or riding the trainer. But it still happens. You still should replenish.


Neal Henderson  24:30  

Yeah, that's absolutely and same thing. If you do a lot of manual labor of some kind, whether it's like doing work on your home, or you actually work outside in the elements. Your need for fluid, as you get into the summer months is going to be extremely important for you to be monitoring and getting an idea and that's one thing that kind of some day to day body weight helps with understanding actually hydration status, not your, you know, are you are you losing weight or gaining weight because day to day it doesn't work like that. It's actually really a better indicator of your fluid balance of what's going on.


Mac Cassin  25:00  

Yeah, and I think one last thing to touch on for this fluid related stuff. Hydration related is when you're talking about recovery post workout. So one of the, we've talked about it before in other episodes, but glycogen is the main storage form of, of carbohydrate in your body, that glycogen has to be stored


Unknown Speaker  25:20  

with water, about three ish grams, three to three to four. cost about three was a running joke,


Mac Cassin  25:31  

we might need long running Dr. J to come in and we must handle that one exactly, we get out third party. Edie make a note that we need to get a quote from Ginger there. Thanks, buttons. So when you're recovering, when you're trying to replenish that loss, glycogen, you need to have adequate water to go along with storage. And it's another reason that your day to day weight can fluctuate quite significantly if you have a big long ride and then don't necessarily adequately fuel. Yep, if you'd like


Neal Henderson  26:01  

chicken wings, when you finish writing weight, that's bad, and a beer or a few.


Mac Cassin  26:07  

I thought we weren't talking about drinking,


Neal Henderson  26:09  

we can talk about it a little bit in that context. Those are not very high carbohydrate foods.


Mac Cassin  26:16  

So you're not going to get that storage replenishment. So some of that water isn't going to have a place to latch on to


Neal Henderson  26:22  

yet which alcohol is a diuretic. And so that's going to help you stay even more dehydrated state, whatever level dehydrated you already are, in some cases. So


Mac Cassin  26:31  

to have that post, ride beer sparingly.


Neal Henderson  26:35  

Yeah, you can still have it, but you need to have some of the other stuff you want to do in here. Funny story, Mac. Oh, maybe not funny. But but but relevant story. So you know, as a strength and conditioning coach with an HL ice hockey team, they were sponsored by a local bar. I will not name names, but the bar would provide chicken wings, and they had beer at the end of the games. And again, while I love wings and beer for a professional athlete, not the ideal post competition fuel, especially with with the players, the game, they can have three and four games in a week. So they can have two back to back games two days. And if they were doing as they would do at home, having more often beer and wings as their first thing. They were not adequately refueling their glycogen stores and they would suffer the next day. Even though they were at home. It was actually not a good setup. So we talked to a different provider, grocery store that brought some fruit and bagels, and we had chocolate milk. So we had something to get that first thing started. And we talked with the bar of we would still you know, we're totally okay with these guys, you know, having some of that, but not immediately after the game. So how about we suggest they come over to your bar afterwards. And then the player, you know, some of the public would get to meet some of the players. So it was kind of a win win, I think, you know, we we corrected some opportunity for improved rehydration and refueling. And some of the locals got to meet meet the players a little more than they would have otherwise. So you know,


Mac Cassin  28:10  

and most importantly, you guys still got beer and chicken wings. Yes.


Neal Henderson  28:14  

And I got chocolate milk and fruit.


Mac Cassin  28:18  

Alright, so I guess I already said one last thing. But one one last. Last thing. One more, is just when you are done exercising, you can't if you've lost a liter and a half of fluid, you can't just chug a liter and a half. One, if you can, that's very impressive, but it's still not good. It's still not good. Your body can only absorb so much over a set period of time. So any electric dentin


Neal Henderson  28:40  

rate is the thing there but we you need to space that over several hours rehydrating. And so again, not all in one fell swoop and so you're going to have to space that out and that fluid again It shouldn't just be water even when you're not exercising because you're still going to need some of that sodium for that to be processed even though you're not exercising same some of the same rules apply. And so a sports drink is still probably better and in some cases if you are extremely dehydrated some of the rehydration drinks can work. Fantastic you know and a lot of these you know were developed for children having GI issues and Pedialyte is is one of the you know name brands. But there's lots of different things out there now. My first ever Iron Man I did I was drinking Pedialyte because I knew it was in Florida. It was hot, humid, I don't I do sweat a lot. I need more sodium than the average person back then we didn't have some of the more advanced higher sodium containing sports drink fluids. So I basically went to the source of something that worked.


Mac Cassin  29:40  

You know they have Pedialyte, plus now with 33% More electrolytes, which is it's basically aimed at adults who are have a hangover hangover. Yeah. It will help you there. It also works great as a


Neal Henderson  29:52  

sports replacement food. Yep. So keep your eyes out for those kinds of things that have just a little bit higher sodium concentration for that rehydrate. Shouldn't and space it out you know, have a maybe a leader every hour for a few hours after if you are several meters down. So this information that we provided will hopefully help you avoid some of the problems that we've run into as athletes over time and help you be a better more hydrated endurance athlete. Thanks for listening to the knowledge podcast by one


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